To legitimize the aniline-based colorimetric methodology, standard 2-FAL solutions were first prepared in novel IMO (naphthenic type), i.e. to the new IMO, known amounts of a 2-FAL standard were added (concentrations of the order of 1 – 10 mg / L).

These standard solutions were evaluated by the two methodologies: chromatographic and colorimetric. From these analyzes it was acceptable to evaluate the comparative response of these methodologies and to construct standard curves. In the sequence, real samples were tested by the two methods to validate the colorimetric methodology.

Accelerated oven aging tests at 120 ° C of new OMI (paraffinic type) samples were performed in the absence and presence of insulating Kraft paper. 100 mL of oil and 2.7 g of paper were used in all assays.

Samples (IMO and paper / IMO) were placed in Erlenmeyer flasks of 250 mL capacity. At 3 day time intervals, samples were collected from the greenhouse and suitably characterized by interfacial tension tests according to ASTM D 971-91 (ASTM, 1991) for the determination of furanic compounds by colorimetric and chromatographic methods.

The mode by which the inverter makes the frequency variation is called Pulse Width Modulation, or PWM, the commonly used acronym in English. Note that in fact, it is a square wave composed of several variable pulses, but which, in general, simulate a sinusoid. Already the current pulses look more like a sinusoid, and two transistors emit pulses that together will form half of a current cycle.

When the electromagnetic circuit of the motor gains PWM power, it normally operates as if it received normal sinusoidal power, but the insulation suffers greatly from the pulsating voltage variation, at a frequency much greater than that of the sinusoid itself.      P01643

To perform the frequency and voltage variation, the frequency inverter does not emit perfectly sinusoidal waves for both. The power signal at the output of the frequency inverter is basically a simulation of a sinusoid, not an effective sinusoid, and for this purpose the values ​​of the peculiarities of the congruent circuit of the motor and the laws of electromagnetism are used to deceive the motor.

In most transformers, the windings are independent of each other but suffer from the action of the electromagnetic field, which is more intense than these transformers that have a core of ferromagnetic material.

The winding in which we apply the voltage we want to transform is called primary and the winding where we get the desired voltage is called secondary.

The secondary voltage will depend on the ratio of turns between the primary and the secondary and the voltage applied on the primary. Although in practice one sums up the calculation and tips of single-phase and biphasic trains with iron core, we find that some symbols of other types of transformers, and their respective applications are the same.

All transformers heat up during operation due to the losses that exist in all of them and the higher the power withdrawn in the secondary of a transformer, the greater will be the heating of it.      1VP62X

The cores must be composed of plates of iron silicon, not serving for the same purpose, sweet iron or other common iron, just as neither is a solid iron core possible.

The quality of the iron used is a factor that must be evaluated in the design of a trafo. In power trains, we use silicon iron plate of 1.7 or 2 Watts / kg.

It is extremely important to emphasize the existence of signaling elements, such as signal, voltmeter and ammeter. Machines receive commands through starters. It can be said that the most commonly used are the direct, reversing starter, which works in the drive of small motors; star triangle starter, which acts in the drive of large motors that have no load; compensating match; which drives the big engines with load; and starting with frequency inverter, which operates on the drive of small and large motors.

Therefore, all the starters found in the electric motors have a main circuit and a control circuit. The main or power circuit, as it may also be called, operates directly in the process of powering the motor, and in this way, it ends up having the main function of connecting the terminals and wires of the motor to the mains. In turn, the control circuit, as its name says, is to control the power circuit, thus determining when the motor can be turned on or off. Starters include protection devices such as fuse, thermal relay, circuit breaker and motor; control devices such as buttons, contactors and timers.

At the exact moment when the field winding is properly fed by means of an electric current, it begins the production of a magnetic field around the entire winding, by means of the current that circulates in it. It should be emphasized that electrical machines are generally known and required by important factors, such as their optimized power, which is able to combine the force of interaction of magnetic fields, enabling the interaction in the induction of a central axis, which mission to move in order to generate force and speed efficiently and satisfactorily.

In this way, electric motors baldor ac motors are made up of different elements inserted in a metal carafe. All DC electric motors rely on the same parts for their operation, changing only their dimensions, varying according to the motor sizes. Among the parts considered most relevant in an electric motor is the field coil, which is connected to the housing on the inside, and which can be a magnet or electromagnet. Another component of great value in the electric motors is the armature, known to be the central axis of the motor, being induced to rotate due to the contact of the magnetic fields of the coil and him.

It is worth mentioning that mechanical energy, which often originates from a hydraulic turbine, be it gas or steam, is widely used in order to make the rotor rotate, inducing a voltage in the winding terminals that, when are properly connected to the loads, resulting in the circulation of electric currents through the windings and the load. In the case of a generator capable of supplying a direct current, a mechanical switch or switch ring has the function of alternating the current direction so that it remains unidirectional.

The most common category of electric generator that can be found consistene dynamo, which consists of a direct current generator SealMaster NPL-25, which varies according to the electromagnetic induction to convert mechanical energy into electric energy. The basic law of electromagnetic induction is basically based on Faraday’s law of induction combined with the law of Ampere, usually expressed by the third and fourth Maxwell equations. The dynamo acts by converting the mechanical energy found in the rotation of its axis, which makes the intensity of a magnetic field, generated by a permanent magnet through a set of windings, can vary in time.

Most electric motors operate from the concepts of electromagnetism, however, engines that are largely based on other electromechanical phenomena, such as electrostatic forces, can be found. Electromagnetic motors are based on the fundamental principle that there is a mechanical force on the entire length of the wire when conducting electricity contained inside a magnetic field. The force is governed by the Lorentz force law, being perpendicular to the wire and to the magnetic field.

The rotor rotates because the wires and the magnetic field are arranged so that a torque is developed over the rotor center line. The reverse task of converting the mechanical movement into electrical energy is made possible by that carried out by a generator or a dynamo. In many cases, the two devices are distinguished only in their application and other small details of construction.

Traction motors Baldor CEWAM3558T used in locomotives are intended to perform both tasks frequently if the locomotive is equipped with dynamic brakes. Usually, this application also happens to off-road trucks known as electrodiesel.

The universal electric motor basically consists of an intermediate type of motor, capable of operating both through DC and AC power. It is worth emphasizing that a DC electric motor will never accept an AC power, since it inverts the direction of the current every half cycle, provoking serious tremors, in the same way, that a true AC motor can not have a DC power, already that it can not offer the appropriate changes in the current direction for the correct operation of the motor.

Thus, if the permanent magnets of the stators of the DC motors Baldor D5020P are replaced by electromagnets and connected in series, these electromagnets in the same circuit of the rotor and commutator would become universal motors.

This motor will rotate correctly, if it is fed by direct current or alternating current. The noticeable difference between the universal motor and the DC motor is that if the universal motor with DC source is supplied it can not reverse the direction of rotation if the polarity of the source is reversed, as with the DC motor, which will continue to rotate always in the same direction.

In order for the synchronous machine to convert the mechanical energy applied to its axis or shaft, it is extremely necessary that the field winding found in the machine rotor is properly fed by a DC voltage source so that, upon turning, the field generated by the rotor poles obtain a movement relative to the conductors of the stator windings. Due to the relative movement between the magnetic field of the rotor poles, the intensity of the magnetic field that circulates through the stator windings can vary in time, that is, considering Faraday’s law, there will be an induction of voltages to the terminals of the stator windings.

Thus, due to the form of distribution and space arrangement of the stator winding assembly, the voltages induced at its terminals can be alternated three-phase sinusoidal. In the case of operating as a generator, the mechanical energy will be supplied to the electric motor T2535173S by the application of a torque and by the rotation of the shaft or shaft thereof. Once the generator has been properly connected to the mains, the voltage to its terminals will be determined by the frequency of rotation and by the number of poles, the frequency of the three-phase voltage of the machine.


An important induction electric motor specification is its nameplate, which presents relevant information such as the mechanical power of the motor in cv, which is the power that the motor can provide within its rated assignments. Ip / In is the ratio between the starting and nominal currents. Hz is the frequency of the motor operating voltage.

RPM is the motor speed at the rated operating frequency. V stands for the supply voltage. A consists of the current that the motor absorbs from the mains when it operates at nominal power, at rated voltage and frequency. F.S is the service factor applied to rated power, indicates the permissible load that can be continuously loaded to the motor, under specified conditions.

To prevent high starting currents, there are some forms of electric motor drives that allow a drop in the starting current value of some machines, such as star-delta starting, serial-parallel start and self-compensating starting. In the case of the six-terminal motor there are two types of connection, the triangle with the nominal winding of the phase winding equal to 220 V, the star with a star-connected winding the line voltage becomes 3 times the winding voltage.

When choosing a DC machine according to the purpose, it should be emphasized that it is important that the operator considers all the environmental conditions in which it is designed, as well as the requirements of application and operation of the motor. The responsible person must be aware that the operating temperature of the DC motor needs to be considered at any time when any sensitive electronic component must be used, or if the ambient temperature is not at a temperature of 40 ° C or If the environment is sensitive to the heat dissipation of the electric motor.


The various additional cooling mechanisms must be installed in order to neutralize the excessive heating generated in the engine or the surrounding environment. Corrosion protection must be respected in environments where the engine is exposed to dust, radiation or hazardous substances, which can result in engine degradation. The enclosure and the proper engine materials are extremely important and can be used to ensure the protection against any type of contamination or possible damage.


Electric motors operate from the moment the electric current produces a magnetic field, in which when it varies in relation to a conductor, it causes an electric current. Generally, two magnets are formed, one in the stator and the other in the rotor, in which, their interaction generates the movement of the motor. In the three-phase motor, the distribution of the coils of the three phases in the stator, degressed by 120 degrees, ends up making the sum of the magnetic fields generated by each of them is a uniform and rotating field. This field capable of circulating in the magnetic stator and rotor cores generates a current flow in the rotor bars.

The rhetorical current produces a magnetic field that must oppose the movement that generated the poles opposite to that of the stator acme PL112603. The result is that the stator field pushes the rotor at the moment of rotation, but always at a higher speed, causing the rotor to slide relative to the rotating field. When a load is inserted into the motor shaft, the rotor slows down, increasing the slip

The synchronous generator is considered one of the most important types among rotary electric machines, capable of converting mechanical energy to electric, if it is operated as a generator and electric energy in mechanical energy, if operated as an electric motor.

Synchronous generators are usually used mostly in hydroelectric and thermoelectric power plants. The synchronous name is based on the factor of the machine being able to act with a constant speed of rotation synchronized with the frequency of the alternating electric voltage applied to the terminals of the machine, thus, by means of the similar movement of rotation, between the rotating field and the rotor, is Called a synchronous machine, since it presents synchronism between the field of the stator and rotor.

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Among the main parts of the synchronous generator is the rotor. Which consists of the rotating part of the machine and can be composed of a package of blades of a ferromagnetic material wrapped in a winding composed of copper conductors designated as field winding, whose main function is to generate a constant magnetic field in the same way Than the DC generator so that it can interact with the field produced by the winding of the stator.

Electric motors of alternating current, with the exception of the universal type, are machines that present a constant speed. However, it is possible for the stator coils of an induction motor to be reclosed so as to double the number of poles, thus reducing speed by half, in which stators have the possibility of being constructed with two independent windings, Accurately calculated for the number of poles required.

In this way, the variation of poles is obtained through reversible poles, and with a reduced number of connections that can vary the synchronous speed of the motor baldor ac motors.

Each of the coils has the possibility of being connected in a way that can generate two distinct speeds, counting thus, with four independent synchronous speeds. However, they can never provide any velocity considered intermediate.

With winding rotor induction motors, it is feasible to obtain any speed, from zero to the speed of synchronism, by varying a resistance attached to the winding of the rotor, and that can not imply heating of the same, Losses are external to the motor.

An alternative for driving the three-phase induction motors under load is the starting with compensating auto-trafo, usually called compensator.

The start-up is carried out in two stages, in the first, the motor supply is carried out under low voltage by means of the autotransformer. At the start of the starting, the current peak and the conjugate are decreased equivalent to the square of the transformation ratio in accordance with the tap of the transformer, this transformation link can be 65 or 80%.

Thus, the motor torque travels, even in the first stage, speed greater than that reached in the star-triangle method. In the second stage, after the initial start time, the neutral point of the autotransformer is released, the motor is turned on under wide voltage, returning its nominal properties.

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The voltage in the electric motor is decreased proportionally with the transformer taps, due to the use of the 65% position, the line current is roughly equivalent to the star-delta starting method, therefore, in the transition from reduced voltage to full voltage , The motor is not disconnected.

In this way, the second peak current is greatly reduced because the auto-traction, for a short period of time, becomes a reactance connected in series with the motor.

In an asynchronous electric motor, the rotor will spin with rotation below the rotating field rotation so there will be induced current and torque. The difference between the rotor speeds and the stator rotating field is known as “slippage”.

The magnetic force lines of the rotating field are cut by the winding of the rotor, when the motor rotates at a speed different from the synchronous speed. By the laws of electromagnetism, induced currents circulate in it.

The higher the load, the higher the torque that will trigger this load. This conjugate will have to be larger than the difference of speeds between the rotor and the rotating field in the stator, this causes the induced currents and the produced fields to be larger. The higher the load the lower the engine speed. When the load is zero the rotor will rotate in the synchronous rotation.

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With zero load the slip is very small so the rotor current is reduced, just enough to produce the necessary torque at vacuum. When a mechanical load is applied to the rotor, the speed decreases somewhat and this decrease in speed causes an increase in slippage, the frequency of the rotor current, its reactance and its induced electromotive force.

A DC electric motor is composed of an axis coupled to the rotor which is the rotating part of the motor. The stator is composed of a magnet and the switch has the function of transferring power from the power supply to the rotor.

The basic principle of operation of the DC electric motor is: “Whenever a conductor conducting an electric current (in red) is placed in a magnetic field (in blue), this conductor experiences a mechanical force (in green)” generating the torque and The rotation of the motor shaft.

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The magnetic field is generated between the north and south poles of the magnet and has a direction from north to south. The torque that will propel the coil and turn the rotor. The density of magnetic flux is called B. The direction of the mechanical force is given by the rule of the left hand of Fleming.

By feeding the DC voltage switch, a direct current is generated which is transferred to the coil through the contact of the switch brushes with this coil. The function of the commutator is to be the link between the power supply and the motor of the DC motor.

The electric motors of direct current, are considered the most modern when it comes to design technologies. This technology results in compact machines with excellent dynamic properties and very efficient in the areas of automation and process control.

They have a power of up to 10,000kW, and are suitable for industrial use, such as paper and plastics industries. They are designed to be driven through converters for resistive and inductive loads and can be fabricated with voltages ranging from 110 to 1000 V.

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The rotor and stator are coiled with enameled copper wire and the switches are made of copper and insulating materials of very high quality, thus allowing a perfect contact with the brushes, resulting in excellent switching conditions. Already their brushes are of electrografite or natural graphite and has long useful life.

DC electric motors have high reliability and safety, are not requiring constant maintenance, are efficient, vibration resistant, are robust in their construction, have low power to weight ratio and are economically viable.

As for speed, these engines offer precise regulation, allow constant acceleration regardless of the controlled load and deceleration condition.

The parts, which vary in size and function, complement each other and cause the motor to provide the necessary power for a given machine. However, one of the parts that deserves attention is the winding of single-phase electric motors, after all a winding is the name given to the coils. They are the coils that produce the magnetic field used for the transfer of energy.

The stator, for example, is composed of a pair of windings, the first of which is called the main and the second is called the auxiliary. This pair of windings of single-phase electric motors gets energized when the rotor reaches its maximum acceleration capacity and then the starter winding turns off and only the working coils remain.


In the coil responsible for starting, there is a capacitor, which is equipped with a circuit breaker. This switch is what causes this winding of single-phase electric motors to shut off when starting is given to the motor. The capacitor operates so that there is a rotating magnetic field inside the electric motor for the purpose of driving the motor.

The electric motor of direct current only works when you have a direct current. In order to work, it is necessary to make use of a rectifier circuit, since it is the one that does the conversion to the alternating current, because it is the one that the electric power utilities provide and it needs to be transformed into direct current.

It is possible for the DC electric motor to run at speeds that fit within limits that are considered broad and lend themselves to making controls of great flexibility and precision.

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This model of electric motor is used in a restricted way, because all these specifications make your installation cost even higher or if it is food by means of a continuous feed will need to make use of batteries in electronic devices.

The electric motor of alternating current is found more easily, since the distribution of the electric energy is made mostly in alternating current. The principle of operation is given by the rotating field and arises with the appearance of a system of three-phase alternating currents.

Electric motor with speed reducer is a mechanical device that makes the rotation of an electric motor drive even smaller

The electric motor has several applications and it will be used depending on the need of the machine. The electric motor with speed reducer is one such case because this electric motor is a mechanical device that makes the rotation of an electric motor drive even smaller.

Not to mention that this electric motor has to resort to gears of large diameters or motors with few teeth.

The electric motor mrosupply coxreels with speed reducer has a set of gears and so the electric motor has the purpose of performing the power transmission and this is what provides the speed change of the rotation of the electric motor for more diversified equipment that work in the Industrial sector.

In general, the electric motor with speed reducer operates at a reduction rate with the possibility of being realized with parallel, conical and heart and threaded gears yet it is still one of the geared gear units.

In the market, the consumer finds at his disposal the option of single-phase electric motor is three-phase. Understanding which of these engines is most suitable for your application makes a huge difference, especially for what you can get the one that will meet the needs of your application.

The three-phase electric motor is one of the most used in the industry because it can offer much higher performance than single-phase models. The three-phase has a higher power and can handle heavier segments. Therefore, analyzing whether this engine is the most ideal for what you need is critical before making the purchase, mainly because the value of it is also higher.

The function of this motor is the same as that of the single-phase model. It has the ability to make the transformation of the electric energy it receives into mechanical energy. Mechanical energy is present in products and processes that we use with great frequency. rab lighting here

The electric motor must always function effectively, as the electric motor is the main responsible for generating profit for the owners of the companies and that is why some tips are important to ensure the longer life of the electric motor bearings and also Spend less energy to run.

To increase the life of the electric motor bearings, it is necessary to: respect the lubrication intervals; The bearings of the electric motor must not be greased excessively and the cleaning must be done with gasoline before applying the new grease; The greases used in the electric motor should be those recommended by the electric motor manufacturer.

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When the bearings are operating, it will also be necessary to observe their operating temperature; Care must also be taken to ensure that the ambient temperature is always within the normal limits of operation; If the electric motor is to operate in an environment considered abnormal, the manufacturer should be warned and finally, during the cleaning of the electric motorcycle it will be necessary to remove the dust deposits in the bearing housings.